International Journal of Muslim Societies (IJMS) is a peer-reviewed journal published twice a year. The journal publishes articles from all disciplinary and comparative perspectives that concern the life experiences and dynamics of Muslim societies in South-East Asia and the Islamic world. The journal offers a forum for discussion on past, current, and possible future aspects of Islam and Muslims in both Muslim minority and Muslim majority contexts. Published by Indonesia Nahdlatul Ulama University, Jakarta, International Journal of Muslim Societies (IJMS) is an online journal which invites scholars and students to discuss seriously new ideas, challenging views, fieldwork experiences, and methodological and theoretical approaches to Muslim society