Managing Multicultural Society in Indonesia
with Jakarta as a Show Case
This paper attempts to employ several concepts develop in the west to resolve social and political conflict in a multicultural society. The concept of interculturalism recently proposed as an alternative to the concept of multiculturalism and its related policy considered as a failure will be reviewed to get the perspective to view multicultural problems in Jakarta. In the wake of a recent local election, Jakarta has been rocked by a series of demonstration by Islamic groups against Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok) the Jakarta’s mayor, a Chinese-Christian that accused to denigrate Islam in one of his speech. After a heated campaign from both sides, Basuki who run for the second term controversially lost in a small margin to Anis Baswedan, his rival, an Arabic descent and a Muslim. The election was highly contentious as the supporter of Anies aggressively using Islam as the rallying cry to defeat Ahok. The political development that shows the increasing political pressures from the Islamic groups alarmingly polarized the population into sectarian politics and breaking up the previously multi-cultural coexistence. The multi-cultural issues in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia, a Muslim majority country, could provide a good case of problem in governing a culturally diverse country, in the non-Western society. What is the hindrance in employing the Western concept, particularly citizenship, given the different historical trajectory for such an urban multicultural society like Jakarta? The paper would like to contribute into the debate on the problem of multicultural society from the experience of a non-Western country.
Ananta, A., Arifin, E. N., Hasbullah, M. S., Handayani, N. B. and Pramono, A. (2015). Demography of Indonesia’s Ethnicity. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.
Antlov, H. (1999). ‘In Indonesia: Disentagling the Confusion about Federalism’. The Jakarta Post, June 3.
Antonsich, M. (2016). ‘Interculturalism versus multiculturalism – The Cantle-Modood debate’. Ethnicities, 16 (3), 470-493. doi: 10.1177/1468796815604558.
Aria, P. (2017). Pilkada Jakarta catatkan partisipasi tertinggi sepanjang sejarah (Katadata, 17 Februari). Retrieved from https://katadata.co.id/berita/2017/02/17/pilkada-dki- mencatatkan-angka-partisipasi-tertinggi-sepanjang-sejarah on June 1, 2018.
Bellamy, R. (2008). Citizenship: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Berenschot, W., Nordholt, H. S. and Bakker, L. (2016). ‘Introduction: Citizenship and democratization in postcolonial Southeast Asia’ in Berenschot, W., Nordholt, H.S. and Bakker, L. (Eds.), Citizenship and Democratization in Southeast Asia (pp. 1-30). Leiden: Brill.
Bloemraad, I. (2015). Theorizing and Analyzing Citizenship in a Multicultural Society. The Sociological Quarterly, 56 (4), 591-606.
Castles, L. (1967). ‘The Ethnic Profile of Djakarta’, Indonesia, 23, pp. 153-204.
Colombijn, F. (with the assistance of Martine Barwegen). (2010). Under Construction: The Politics of Urban Space and Housing during the decolonization of Indonesia, 1930-1960. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Avon Books Inc.
Hadi, A. & Tirtosudarmo, R. (2016). Migration, ethnicity and local politics: The case of Jakarta, Indonesia. Populasi, 24 (2), pp. 23-36.
Hefner, R. W. (2005). ‘Muslim democrats and Islamist violence in Post-Soeharto Indonesia’ in Hefner, R. W. (Ed.), Remaking Muslim Politics: Pluralism, Contestation, Democratization (pp.273-301). New Jersey & Woodstock: Princeton University Press.
Hamid, A. (2014). ‘Jokowi’s populism in the 2012 Jakarta gubernatorial election’, Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 33 (1), pp. 85–109.
Huntington, S. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Kanumoyoso, B. (2007). ‘Pengantar: Perubahan Identitas Penduduk Jakarta’, in Lance Castles, Profil Etnik Jakarta (pp. xi-xxxi). Jakarta: Masup.
Lay, C. (2003). ‘Otonomi Daerah dan Keindonesiaan’, in A.G. Karim (Ed.), Kompleksitas Persoalan Otonomi Daerah di Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar & JIP-UGM.
Liddle, W.R. (2001). ‘Introduction: Crafting Indonesia Democracy’. in W.R. Liddle (Ed.). Crafting Indonesia Democracy (pp.1-9). Jakarta: Mizan.
Lim, M. (2014) ‘Seeing spatially: People, networks and movements in digital and urban spaces’, International Development Planning Review, 36(1), pp. 51-72.
____. (2017) ‘Freedom to hate: Social media, algorithmic enclaves, and the rise of tribal nationalism in Indonesia’, Critical Asian Studies, 49 (3), pp. 411-27.
Modood, T. (2013). Multiculturalism: A Civic Idea 2nd Edition. Cambridge & Malden: Polity Press.
Padawangi, R. (2014) ‘Reform, resistance and empowerment: Constructing the public city from the grassroots in Jakarta, Indonesia’, International Development Planning Review, 36(1), pp. 33-50.
Panitia Penulisan Gubernur Jakarta. (2011). Kepala Pemerintahan Daerah Jakarta.
Rae, B. (2003). ‘Federal Idea and Secession’. Paper presented at the Bandaranaike Peace Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, on 27 July.
Ramadhani, N. F. (2017) ‘Anies’s ‘pribumi’ speech sparks debate, ‘racist’ comments on social media’, The Jakarta Post [online] 17 October. Available at: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2017/10/17/aniess-pribumi-speech-sparks-debate-racist-comments-on-social-media.html [Accessed 18 October 2017].
Ricklefs, M.C. (1981). A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1300 2nd Edition. California: Standford University Press.
Schiller, A.A. (1955). The Formation of Federal Indonesia: 1945-1949. The Hague: W. van Hoeve Ltd.
Suryadinata, L., Arifin, E. N. & Ananta, A. (2003). Indonesia’s Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Singapore: ISEAS.
Tirtosudarmo, R. (2005a). ‘Demography and Conflict: The failure of Indonesia’s nation-building project?’ in D.F. Anwar et.al. (eds.). Violent Internal Conflicts in Asia Pacific: Histories, Political Economies and Policies. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, LIPI, Lasema-CNRS and KITLV-Jakarta.
Tirtosudarmo, R. (2005b). ‘Migration-Development-Security Nexus: In search of new perspectives in the changing East Asia Context’ in D.F. Anwar (Ed.) Development, Migration and Security in East Asia: People’s Movements and Non-Traditional Security Challenges in Changing East Asia. Jakarta: The Habibie Center.
Tirtosudarmo, R. & Hadi, A. (in press). Jakarta, on the brink of being a divided city? Ethnicity, media and social transformation. In T. Caponio, P. Scholten, R.Z. Barrero. London: Routledge.
Tsai, Yen-Ling. (2011). ‘Spaces of exclusion, Walls of intimacy: Rethinking “Chinese exclusivity” in Indonesia’, Indonesia, 92, pp. 125-55.
Vertovec, S. (2007). ‘Super-diversity and its implications’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30 (6), pp. 1024-1054. doi: 10.1080/01419870701599465.